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[[Image:brahe.PNG|thumb|right|Tycho Brahe]]
 
'''Tycho Brahe''' ([[14. decembar|14. decembra]], [[1546]] [[Knudstrup]], [[Danska]] – [[24. oktobar|24. oktobra]], [[1601]] [[Prag]], [[Češka]]) [[Danska|Danski]] [[plemić]], poznati astronom, astrolog i [[alhemičar]]. Za njega je izgrađen [[Uraniborg]], zgrada koja bi kasnije postala rani "istraživački zavod". Za [[objavljivanje]] svojih djela imao je [[tvornica papira|tvornicu papira]] i [[stroj za štampanje]]. Njegov najpoznatiji učenikpomoćnik je bio [[Johannes Kepler]]. Opće je poznat kao "Tycho", umjesto po prezimenu "Brahe".
 
==Rane godine==
 
Tycho Brahe je rođen kao Tyge Brahe, a usvojio je latinizirani naziv Tycho negdje oko petnaeste godine (nekada pisano i Tÿcho). Rođen je u sjedištu svojih predaka zamku Knudstrup u [[Danska|Danskoj]], od oca Otte Brahe i majke Beate Bille. Njegov brat blizanac je bio mrtvorođenče (Tycho je napisao odu na latinskom (Wittendorf 1994, p. 68) svom mrtvom bratu, koja je bila printana kao njegova prva publikacija [[1572.]]) Imao je i dvije sestre, stariju (Kirstine Brahe) i mlađu (Sophie Brahe). Otte Brahe, Tychov otac, plemić, je bio važna ličnost u [[Danska|danskom]] kraljevskom sudu. Beate Bille, Tychova majka, također je poticala iz važne porodice koja je davala vodeće političare i crkvene ličnosti.
 
Tycho je kasnije napisao da, kada mu je bilo oko dvije godine, njegov ujak, plemić Jørgen Brahe,... «bez znanja mojih roditelja uzeo me je sa sobom, dok sam bio u najranijoj mladosti.» Očigledno da ovo nije izazvalo nikakve rasprave i njegovi roditelji nisu pokušali da ga vrate sebi. Tycho je živio sa svojim ujakom Jørgen Brahe i njegovom ženom Inger Oxe (koji su bili bez djece), u zamku Tostrup sve do svoje šeste godine. Oko [[1552.]] njegovom ujaku je povjereno zapovjedništvo nad zamkom Vordingborg i u njega su se preselili, a Tycho je započeo učenje latinskog u školi i to je trajalo sve do njegove dvanaeste godine.
 
19-tog aprila [[1559.]] Tycho je započeo studirati na Univerzitetu u Kopenhagenu. Studirao je pravo, poštujući želju svog ujaka, ali također je proučavao i druga različita polja nauke i počeo je ispoljavati interes za [[Astronomija|astronomiju]]. Ipak, pomračenje koje se dogodilo 21-og avgusta [[1560.]] a naročito činjenica da je pomračenje bilo predviđeno, je bilo to što ga je impresioniralo toliko da je, uz pomoć nekih svojih profesora, započeo samostalno proučavanje [[Astronomija|astronomije]]. Nabavio je [[Astronomija|astronomski]] [[kalendar]] i knjige poput Sacrobosco's Tractatus de Sphaera, Apianus' Cosmographia seu descriptio totius orbis and Regiomontanus' De triangulis omnimodis.
 
''Proučavao sam sve dostupne mape [[planeta]] i [[zvijezda]] do kojih sam mogao doći i niti jednoj nisam davao prednost nad drugom. Bilo je toliko različitih metoda i načina mjerenja koliko je bilo astronoma, i svi su bili različiti. Bio je potreban dugoročni projekat sa ciljem mapiranja neba vođen sa jedne lokacije u periodu od nekoliko godina.'' – Tycho Brahe, [[1563.]] (u dobi od 17 godina).
 
Tycho je shvatio da napredak u [[Astronomija|astronomiji]] ne može biti postignut povremenim, slučajnim osmatranjima, već samo sistematičnim i rigoroznim osmatranjem, jednu noć za drugom, i korištenjem najpreciznijih dostupnih instrumenata. On je bio u stanju da unaprijedi i poveća postojeće instrumente, kao i da konstruiše potpuno nove. Tychova mjerenja golim okom planetarne paralakse bila su precizna do arcminute (ugaonog stepena). (Ova mjerenja su prešla u Keplerovo vlasništvo nakon Tychove smrti.)
 
Za vrijeme studija, Tycho je izgubio dio [[Nos|nosa]] u dvoboju širokim mačevima protiv Manderup Parsbjerga, izvjesnog [[Danska|danskog]] plemića. Ovo se desilo na [[Božić]] [[1566]], nakon par pića
in the [[Christmas]] season of [[1566]], after a fair amount of drinking, while the just turned 20-year-old Tycho was studying at the [[University of Rostock]] in [[Germany]]. Attending a dance at a professor's house, he quarrelled with Parsbjerg. A subsequent duel (in the dark) resulted in Tycho losing the bridge of his nose. A consequence of this was that Tycho developed an interest in [[medicine]] and [[alchemy]]. For the rest of his life, he was said to have worn a replacement made of [[silver]] and [[gold]]. Tycho's tomb was reopened in [[1901]] and his remains were examined by medical experts. The nasal opening of the [[skull]] was rimmed with green, a sign of exposure to [[copper]], not silver or gold.
 
==Smrt njegovog oca==
 
His foster father, uncle Jorgen Brahe, had already died in 1565 of pneumonia after rescuing [[Frederick II of Denmark]] from drowning. In April 1567 Tycho returned home from his travels, where his father wanted him to take up law, but was allowed to make trips to Rostock, then on to Augsburg, where he built a great quadrant, Basel, and Freiburg. He was informed about his father's illness
at the end of 1570, so he returned to [[Knudstrup]], where his father died in May 1571. Soon after, his other uncle Steen Bille helped him build an observatory and alchemical laboratory at Herrevad Abbey.
 
==Porodični život==
 
In 1572 in Knudstrup Tycho fell in love with [[Kirsten Jørgensdatter]] who was a commoner, her father, Pastor Jorgen Hansen, being the [[Lutheran]] clergyman of Knudstrup's village church.
Under Danish law, when a nobleman and a commoner woman lived together openly as husband and wife, and she wore the keys to the household at her belt like any true wife, their alliance became a binding [[morganatic]] marriage after three years.
The husband retained his noble status and privileges; the wife remained a commoner. Their children were legitimate in the eyes of the law, but they were commoners like their mother and could not inherit their father's name, coat of arms, or landed property. (Skautrup 1941, pp. 24-5)
 
Kirsten Jørgensdatter gave birth to their daughter, Kirstine (named after Tycho's late sister who died at 13) on October 12, 1573.
 
==Cassiopeia==
 
On [[November 11]], [[1572]], Tycho observed (from [[Herrevad Abbey]]) a very bright star which unexpectedly appeared in the constellation [[Cassiopeia (constellation)|Cassiopeia]]. Since it had been maintained since [[antiquity]] that the world of the fixed stars was eternal and unchangeable (a fundamental axiom of the [[Aristotelian]] world view, celestial immutability), other observers held that the phenomenon was something in the Earth's atmosphere. Tycho, however, observed that the [[parallax]] of the object did not change from night to night, suggesting that the object was far away. Tycho argued that a nearby object should appear to shift its position with respect to the background. He published a small book, ''De Stella Nova'' ([[1573]]), thereby coining the term [[nova]] for a "new" star. (We now know that Tycho's star was a [[supernova]].) This discovery was decisive for his choice of astronomy as a profession. Tycho was strongly critical of those who dismissed the implications of the astronomical appearance, writing in the preface to ''De Stella Nova'': "''O crassa ingenia. O caecos coeli spectatores.''" ("Oh thick wits. Oh blind watchers of the sky.")
 
Tycho's discovery was the inspiration for [[Edgar Allan Poe]]'s poem, "[[Al Aaraaf]]".
 
==Heliocentrizam==
 
Kepler tried, but was unable, to persuade Brahe to adopt the [[heliocentrism|heliocentric model]] of the [[solar system]]. Tycho believed in a modified [[geocentric model]] known as the [[Tychonian system]], for the same reasons that he argued that the supernova of 1572 was not near the Earth. He argued that if the Earth were in motion, then nearby stars should appear to shift their positions with respect to background stars. In fact, this effect of [[Parallax#Stellar_parallax|parallax]] does exist; it could not be observed with the naked eye, or even with the [[Telescope|telescopes]] of the next two hundred years, because even the nearest stars are much more distant than most astronomers of the time believed possible.
 
 
==Uraniborg, Stjerneborg and Benátky nad Jizerou==
 
[[Image:Uraniborgskiss_90.PNG|thumb|left|300px|Watercolor plan of Uraniborg]]
[[Monarch|King]] [[Frederick II of Denmark and Norway|Frederick II]] of [[Denmark]] and [[Norway]], impressed with Tycho's 1572 observations, financed the construction of two observatories for Tycho on the island of [[Hven]] in [[Copenhagen]] Sound. These were [[Uraniborg]] and [[Stjerneborg]]. Uraniborg also had a laboratory for Brahe's [[alchemy|alchemical]] experiments.
 
Because Tycho disagreed with [[Christian IV of Denmark|Christian IV]], the new king of his country, he moved to [[Prague]] in [[1599]]. Sponsored by [[Rudolf II|Rudolf II]], the [[Holy Roman Empire|Holy Roman Emperor]], he built a new observatory (in a castle in Benátky nad Jizerou 50 km away from Prague) and worked there until his death.
 
In return for their support, Tycho's duties included preparing [[astrology|astrological]] charts and predictions for his patrons on events such as births; [[weather]] forecasting; and astrological interpretations of significant astronomical events such as the [[comet]] of [[1577]] and the [[supernova]] of [[1572]].
 
==Brahe i astronomija==
 
[[Image:Mauerquadrant.jpg|thumb|300px|Mauerquadrant (Tycho Brahe 1598)]]
Tycho was the preeminent observational astronomer of the pre-telescopic period, and his observations of [[star|stellar]] and [[planet]]ary positions achieved unparalleled accuracy for their time. For example Brahe measured Earth's [[Axial tilt|axial tilt]] as 23 degrees and 31.5 minutes, which he claimed to be more acurate than Copernicus by 3.5 minutes. After his death, his records of the motion of the planet [[Mars (planet)|Mars]] enabled Kepler to discover the [[Kepler's laws of planetary motion|laws of planetary motion]], which provided powerful support for the [[Copernicus|Copernican]] [[heliocentric theory]] of the solar system. Tycho himself was not a Copernican, but proposed a system in which the planets other than [[Earth]] orbited the [[Sun]] while the Sun orbited the Earth. This system is frequently described as a "compromise"; however, both the heliocentric and geocentric theories relied upon "crystal spheres", to which the planets were attached. Tycho's theory abandoned the crystal spheres, a remarkable step to take before [[Isaac Newton]] formulated the concept of "action at a distance". In this respect, then, the Tychonic universe was more revolutionary than the Copernican.
 
He was aware that a star observed near the horizon appears with a greater [[altitude]] than the real one, due to atmospheric [[refraction]], and he worked out tables for the correction of this source of error.
 
==Brahe i astrologija==
 
Like the [[fifteenth century]] [[astronomer]] [[Regiomontanus]], Tycho Brahe appears to have accepted [[astrological]] prognostications on the principle that the [[planets|heavenly bodies]] undoubtedly influenced (yet did not determine) [[terrestrial]] events, but expressed [[skepticism]] about the [[multiplicity]] of interpretative schemes, and increasingly preferred to work on establishing a sound [[mathematical]] [[astronomy]]. Two early tracts, one entitled ''Against Astrologers for Astrology'', and one on a new method of dividing the [[sky]] into [[astrological houses]], were never published and are unfortunately now lost.
 
Tycho also worked in the area of [[weather prediction]], produced [[astrological]] interpretations of the [[supernova]] of [[1572]] and the [[comet]] of [[1577]], and furnished his patrons [[Frederick II]] and [[Rudolph II]] with [[natal chart|nativities]] and other predictions (thereby strengthening the ties between patron and client by demonstrating value.)
An [[astrological]] [[worldview]] was fundamental to Tycho's entire [[philosophy]] of [[nature]]. His interest in [[alchemy]], particularly the [[medical]] alchemy associated with [[Paracelsus]], was almost as long-standing as his study of [[astrology and astronomy]] simultaneously, and [[Uraniborg]] was constructed as both [[observatory]] and [[laboratory]].
 
In an introductory [[oration]] to the course of lectures he gave in [[Copenhagen]] in [[1574]], Tycho defended [[astrology]] on the grounds of correspondences between the heavenly bodies, terrestrial substances (metals, stones etc.), and bodily [[organ (anatomy)|organs]]. He was later to emphasise the importance of studying [[alchemy]] and [[astrology]] together with a pair of emblems bearing the mottoes: ''Despiciendo suspicio'' - "By looking down I see upward" and ''Suspiciendo despicio'' - "By looking up I see downward." As several scholars have now argued, Tycho's commitment to a relationship between [[macrocosm and microcosm]] even played a role in his rejection of [[Copernicus|Copernicanism]] and his construction of a third world-system.
 
==Tychova smrt==
 
Brahe died in [[1601]], several days after straining his bladder during a banquet. It has been said that to leave the banquet before it concluded, would be the height of bad manners and so he remained. His weakened state allowed an infection to invade his body and lead ultimately to his death.
 
However, recent investigations have suggested that Tycho did not die from urinary problems but most likely from [[mercury (element)|mercury]] poisoning: toxic levels of it have been found in his hair and hair-roots. Tycho may have poisoned himself unintentionally by imbibing some mercury-containing medicine [http://www.griffithobs.org/IPSHowTychoDied.html]. Some have even speculated that Tycho may have been murdered, though there is no solid evidence for this.
 
==Nazivi po Tychou==
 
*[[Tycho (crater)|Tycho crater]] on [[The Moon|the Moon]].
*[[Tycho Brache (crater)|Tycho Brahe crater]] on [[Mars (planet)|Mars]].
* An old name of an Irish synthpop band, now called Tychonaut.
* Tycho Brahe, a character from the popular webcomic [[Penny Arcade]].
* The AI Tycho from [[Bungie_Studios|Bungie's]] computer game [[Marathon_(computer_game)|Marathon]].
 
==Dalje čitanje==
 
* John Robert Christianson: ''On Tycho's Island: Tycho Brahe, science, and culture in the sixteenth century'' (Cambridge University Press, 2000) (ISBN 0-521-65081-X) (xii, 451 p. : ill., maps)
 
* Mary Gow: ''Tycho Brahe : Astronomer'' (Berkeley Heights, NJ : Enslow Publishers, 2002) (ISBN 0766017575) (128 p. : ill.)
 
* Victor E. Thoren: ''The Lord of Uraniborg: a biography of Tycho Brahe'' (Cambridge University Press, 1990) (ISBN 0-521-35158-8) (520pp)
 
*Kitty Ferguson: ''The nobleman and his housedog: Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler: the strange partnership that revolutionised science.'' London : Review, 2002 ISBN 0-747270-22-8 (published in the US as: ''Tycho & Kepler: the unlikely partnership that forever changed our understanding of the heavens.'' New York: Walker, 2002 ISBN 0-8027-1390-4)
 
*Joshua Gilder and Anne-Lee Gilder ''Hevenly Intrigue'' (Doubleday, 2004) (ISBN 0-385-50844-1)
==Reference==
 
* Skautrup, Peter, 1941 Den jyske lov: Text med oversattelse og ordbog. Aarhus: Universitets-forlag.
 
* Wittendorff, ALex. 1994. Tyge Brahe. Copenhagen: G. E. C. Gad.
 
==Vanjski linkovi==
 
{{commons|Tycho Brahe}}
*[http://digital.lib.lehigh.edu/planets/brahe.php?num=F&exp=false&lang=lat&CISOPTR=404&limit=brahe&view=full Astronomiae instauratae mechanica, 1602 edition] - Full digital facsimile, Lehigh University.
*[http://www.sil.si.edu/DigitalCollections/HST/Brahe/brahe.htm Astronomiae instauratae mechanica, 1602 edition] - Full digital facsimile, Smithsonian Institution.
*[http://www.kb.dk/elib/lit/dan/brahe/index-en.htm Astronomiae instauratae mechanica, 1598 edition] - Full digital facsimile, the Royal Library, Denmark. Includes Danish and English translations.
 
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