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[[Datoteka:00DI0943 - Flickr - USDAgov.jpg|thumb|lijevo|Doseljenici u centralnoj Nebraski 1888.]]
Tokom 1860tih, nakon što je američka vlada primorala mnoga domorodačka indijanska plemena da napuste svoju zemlju i presele se u rezervate, otvorio se veliki prostor za poljoprivredni razvoj doseljenih Amerikanaca i Evropljana. U skladu sa Zakonom o besplatnoj dodjeli zemlje farmerima (''Homestead Act'') hiljade novih naseljenika doselilo se u Nebrasku zauzimajući slobodnu zemlju koju im je pružila savezna vlada. Pošto je u [[prerija|prerijama]]ma raslo vrlo malo drveća, mnogi od prvih naseljenika i farmera pravilo je kuće prekrivene travom, kao što su to radila i domorodačka plemena poput plemena Omaha. Prvi talas naseljenika dao je teritoriji dovoljan broj stanovnika da zatraži od vlade status savezne države.<ref name="marsha" />
 
Nebraska je postala 37. savezna američka država 1. marta 1867. godine, a glavni grad joj je premješten iz Omahe u naselje Lancaster, kasnije preimenovan u [[Lincoln (Nebraska)|Lincoln]] po tada nedavno ubijenom predsjedniku Sjedinjenih Američkih Država [[Abraham Lincoln|Abrahamu Lincolnu]]. Bitka kod Massacre Canyona (u blizini gradića [[Trenton (Nebraska)|Trenton]]) 5. augusta 1873. bila je posljednja velika bitka između plemena [[Pawnee (pleme)|Pawnee]] i [[Sioux]].<ref name="elipaul" />
U Nebraski su prisutne dvije osnovne klimatske zone. Istočni dio države ima [[vlažna kontinentalna klima|vlažnu kontinentalnu klimu]] (''Dfa'' po [[Köppenova klasifikacija klime|Köppenovoj klasifikaciji]]), dok zapadni dio ima hladnu stepsku klimu (''BSk'' po Köppenu). Cijela savezna država ima vrlo velika sezonska kolebanja temperature i količine padavina. Prosječne temperature su dosta ujednačene u svim područjima Nebraske, uz vruća ljeta i općenito hladne zime.
 
Prosječna godišnja količina padavina se smanjuje od istoka prema zapadu, od oko 800 &nbsp;mm u jugoistočnom uglu države do oko 350 &nbsp;mm u ''dršci tave'' (''Panhandle''). Vlažnost se također znatno smanjuje od istoka prema zapadu. Količina snijega je dosta ujednačena, na veći dio Nebraske godišnje padne od 60 do 90 &nbsp;cm [[snijeg]]a. Najviši temperaturni rekord u Nebraski drži grad [[Minden (Nebraska)|Minden]] gdje je 24. jula 1936. zabilježena temperatura od 48 &nbsp;°C, dok je najniža ikad zabilježena temperatura ona u Camp Clarku 12. februara 1899. kada je izmjereno −44 &nbsp;°C.
{{USCensusPop
|1860= 28841
{{refspisak|2|refs=
<ref name="spotedu">{{cite web|url=http://spot.colorado.edu/~koontz/faq/etymology.htm |title=Etymology, Siouan Languages|pristupdatum=28. 11. 2006 |autor=Koontz, John}}</ref>
<ref name="cathency">"Nebraska", ''[http://www.catholic.org/encyclopedia/view.php?id=8369 Catholic Encyclopedia]'', 1910</ref>
<ref name="tcdne">{{cite web |url=http://www.tcdne.org/climate.htm |title=Climate – Twin Cities Development Association, Inc. – Nebraska: Scottsbluff, Gering, TerryTown, Mitchell, Bayard |izdavač=Tcdne.org |pristupdatum=24. 2. 2009 |accessdate=20. 10. 2014 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090604023754/http://www.tcdne.org/climate.htm |archivedate=4. 6. 2009 |url-status=dead }}</ref>
<ref name="Establishment">{{cite web|author=Interactive Media Group – Nebraska Educational Telecommunications |url=http://nebraskastudies.unl.edu/0500/frameset_reset.html?http://nebraskastudies.unl.edu/0500/stories/0502_0100.html |title=1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act signed|izdavač=Nebraskastudies.unl.edu |pristupdatum=22. 5. 2012}}</ref>
<ref name="genealog">''The Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America'', 10. izd. (Draper Utah: Everton Publishers, decembar 2002), {{ISBN |978-1932088007}}</ref>
<ref name="marsha">Marsha Hoffman i Dwight A. Radford, "Nebraska," u: ''Redbook: American State, County, and Town Sources'', 3. izd. (Provo: Ancestry, 2004), 408. {{ISBN |978-1593311667}}</ref>
<ref name="elipaul">''The Nebraska Indian Wars reader'', 1865-1877, R. Eli Paul str. 88, University of Nebraska Press (1. april 1998) {{Simboli jezika|en|engleski}}, {{ISBN |0-8032-8749-6}}</ref>
<ref name="2010census">{{cite web|autor=Resident Population Data |url=http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data/apportionment-pop-text.php |title=Resident Population Data – 2010 Census |izdavač=2010.census.gov|pristupdatum=22. 5. 2012}}</ref>
<ref name="unledu">{{cite web |url=http://www.nebraskaclimateoffice.unl.edu/weather.summary.Dec99 |title=Nebraska Climate Office; Applied Climate Science; SNR; UNL |izdavač=Nebraskaclimateoffice.unl.edu |datum=23. 7. 2009 |pristupdatum=17. 4. 2010 |accessdate=20. 10. 2014 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20081207190107/http://www.nebraskaclimateoffice.unl.edu/weather.summary.Dec99 |archivedate=7. 12. 2008 |url-status=dead }}</ref>
<ref name="tcdne">{{cite web |url=http://www.tcdne.org/climate.htm |title=Climate – Twin Cities Development Association, Inc. – Nebraska: Scottsbluff, Gering, TerryTown, Mitchell, Bayard |izdavač=Tcdne.org |pristupdatum=24. 2. 2009 |accessdate=20. 10. 2014 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090604023754/http://www.tcdne.org/climate.htm |archivedate=4. 6. 2009 |url-status=dead }}</ref>
<ref name="PopEstUS">{{cite web|url=http://www.census.gov/popest/data/state/totals/2013/index.html|title=Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013|format=CSV|izdavač=Popisni biro SAD, Population Division|datum=decembar 2013|pristupdatum=30. 12. 2013|accessdate=22. 10. 2014|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140122163722/http://www.census.gov/popest/data/state/totals/2013/index.html|archivedate=22. 1. 2014|url-status=dead}}</ref>
<ref name="statecenters">{{cite web|title=Population and Population Centers by State: 2000|publisher=Popisni biro SAD|pristupdatum=5. 12. 2008|url=http://www.census.gov/geo/www/cenpop/statecenters.txt}}</ref>
<ref name="2010census">{{cite web|autor=Resident Population Data |url=http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data/apportionment-pop-text.php |title=Resident Population Data – 2010 Census |izdavač=2010.census.gov|pristupdatum=22. 5. 2012}}</ref>
<ref name="quickfacts">{{cite web |url=http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/31000.html |title=Nebraska QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau |izdavač=Quickfacts.census.gov |pristupdatum=18. 10. 2012 |accessdate=23. 10. 2014 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20121014185328/http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/31000.html |archivedate=14. 10. 2012 |url-status=dead }}</ref>
<ref name="clevelandcom">"[http://www.cleveland.com/datacentral/index.ssf/2012/06/americas_under_age_1_populatio.html Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot]". ''The Plain Dealer''. 3. juni 2012.</ref>
<ref name="cathency">"Nebraska", ''[http://www.catholic.org/encyclopedia/view.php?id=8369 Catholic Encyclopedia]'', 1910</ref>
<ref name="genealog">''The Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America'', 10. izd. (Draper Utah: Everton Publishers, decembar 2002), ISBN 978-1932088007</ref>
<ref name="Establishment">{{cite web|author=Interactive Media Group – Nebraska Educational Telecommunications |url=http://nebraskastudies.unl.edu/0500/frameset_reset.html?http://nebraskastudies.unl.edu/0500/stories/0502_0100.html |title=1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act signed|izdavač=Nebraskastudies.unl.edu |pristupdatum=22. 5. 2012}}</ref>
<ref name="elipaul">''The Nebraska Indian Wars reader'', 1865-1877, R. Eli Paul str. 88, University of Nebraska Press (1. april 1998) {{Simboli jezika|en|engleski}}, ISBN 0-8032-8749-6</ref>
<ref name="marsha">Marsha Hoffman i Dwight A. Radford, "Nebraska," u: ''Redbook: American State, County, and Town Sources'', 3. izd. (Provo: Ancestry, 2004), 408. ISBN 978-1593311667</ref>
<ref name="www.thearda.com">{{cite web|url=http://www.thearda.com/rcms2010/r/s/31/rcms2010_31_state_name_2010.asp |title=The Association of Religion Data Archives; State Membership Report |izdavač=www.thearda.com |pristupdatum=22. 11. 2013}}</ref>
<ref name="taxfond">{{cite web|url=http://www.taxfoundation.org/publications/show/228.html |title=State Individual Income Tax Rates, 2000–2010 |izdavač=The Tax Foundation |datum=25. 3. 2010 |pristupdatum=3. 3. 2011}}</ref>
<ref name="revenues02">[http://www.revenue.ne.gov/question/slstax_faq.html#s02 "Frequently Asked Questions about Nebraska Sales and Use Tax".] Nebraska Department of Revenue, Pristupljeno 27.8.2012.</ref>
<ref name="greyhill">{{cite web|title=GDP by State|url=http://greyhill.com/gdp-by-state|izdavač=Greyhill Advisors|pristupdatum=7. 9. 2011}}</ref>
<ref name="nassusda">{{cite web|url=http://www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_State/Ag_Overview/AgOverview_NE.pdf |title=Nebraska State Agriculture Overview – 2006 |pristupdatum=17. 10. 2007 |format=PDF |izdavač= Ministarstvo poljoprivrede SAD }}</ref>
<ref name="blsgov">[http://www.bls.gov/web/laus/lauhsthl.htm Bls.gov]; Local Area Unemployment Statistics</ref>
<ref name="nrelgov">{{Cite web |url=http://www.nrel.gov/gis/re_potential.html |title=Renewable Energy Technical Potential |accessdate=2. 11. 2014 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120915115931/http://www.nrel.gov/gis/re_potential.html |archivedate=15. 9. 2012 |url-status=dead }}</ref>
<ref name="taxfond">{{cite web|url=http://www.taxfoundation.org/publications/show/228.html |title=State Individual Income Tax Rates, 2000–2010 |izdavač=The Tax Foundation |datum=25. 3. 2010 |pristupdatum=3. 3. 2011}}</ref>
<ref name="revenues02">[http://www.revenue.ne.gov/question/slstax_faq.html#s02 "Frequently Asked Questions about Nebraska Sales and Use Tax".] Nebraska Department of Revenue, Pristupljeno 27.8.2012.</ref>
<ref name="cprr">[http://www.cprr.org/Museum/Pacific_Railroad_Acts.html "An Act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes] 12 Stat. 489, 1. juli 1862.</ref>
<ref name="WDL">{{cite web |url = http://www.wdl.org/en/item/4608/ |title = Profile Showing the Grades upon the Different Routes Surveyed for the Union Pacific Rail Road Between the Missouri River and the Valley of the Platte River |izdavač = World Digital Library |year = 1865 |pristupdatum=16. 7. 2013 }}</ref>
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