Razlika između izmjena na stranici "Botrichium"

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Preusmjereno na Botrychium
(Preusmjereno na Botrychium)
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#PREUSMJERI [[Botrychium]]
{{italic title}}
{{taksokvir
|boja=lightblue
|naziv= ''Botrichium''<br>(Paprati mjesečarke)
|slika= Botrychium-4.jpg
|width=350
|slika_opis= ''Botrychium lunaria''
|regnum = [[Plantae]]
|divisio = [[Tracheophytes]]
|classis = [[Polypodiopsida]]
|ordo = [[Ophioglossales]]
|familia = ''Ophioglossaceae''
|subfamilia=''Botrychioideae''
|genus='''''Botrichium'''
|familia_authority =
|podpodjela = [[Genus]]
|subdivision =Vidi ntekst
|}}
'''''Botrychium''''' je [[rod (biologija)|rod]] [[paprati]], [[vaskularna biljka|vaskularnih]] nesjemenjača iz porodice ''[[Ophioglossaceae]]''.<ref name="Christenhusz_2011b">{{cite journal | last1 = Christenhusz | first1 = Maarten J. M. | last2 = Zhang| first2 = Xian-Chun | last3 = Schneider | first3 = Harald | year = 2011 | title = A linear sequence of extant families and genera of lycophytes and ferns | url = http://www.mapress.com/phytotaxa/content/2011/f/pt00019p054.pdf | format = PDF | journal = Phytotaxa | volume = 19 | pages = 7–54 }}</ref> Vrste ovog roda poznate su kao '''mjesečine''' ili '''mjesečarke'''. To su male biljke, sa mesnatim [[korijen]]ima, a reproduciraju se [[spora]]ma, koje se raspršuju u zrak. Jedan dio lista, troflora, je sterilan; drugi, [[sporofor]], plodan je i nosi grozdove [[sporangija]] ili spora. Neke se vrste povremeno izdižu iznad zemlje i većinu prehrane dobijaju iz povezanosti s [[mikoriza|mikorizom]] sa [[gljiva]]ma.
Pozicija roda ''Botrichium'' osporava se između različitih autora; neki botaničari uključuju rodove ''[[Botrypus]] '' i '' [[Sceptridium]] '' unutar '' Botrychium '', dok ih drugi tretiraju kao zasebne. Potonji tretman se ovdje privremeno primjenjuje.
 
==Odabrane vrste==
===''Botrychium sensu stricto'', mjesečarke===
*[[Botrychium acuminatum]], W.H.Wagner 1990.<ref>[http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500271 ''B. acuminatum''] Flora of North America, www.eFloras.org 26 Dec 2011</ref>
*''[[Botrychium alaskense]]'' W.H.Wagner & J.R.Grant 2002.<ref>[http://www.tropicos.org/Name/100367914 ''B. alaskense''] Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 27 Dec 2011</ref><ref>[http://www.public.iastate.edu/~herbarium/botrychium/B-alaskense.pdf ''B. alaskense''] Iowa State Herbarium 27 Dec 2011</ref>
*''[[Botrychium ascendens]]'' W.H.Wagner 1986.<ref>[http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500270 ''B. ascendens''] Flora of North America, www.eFloras.org 26 Dec 2011</ref>
*''[[Botrychium boreale]]'' H. Milde 1857.<ref>[http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500273 ''B. boreale''] Flora of North America, www.eFloras.org 26 Dec 2011</ref>
*''[[Botrychium chamaeconium]]'' Bitter & Hieron. 1900.<ref>[http://www.tropicos.org/Name/26605833 ''B. chamaeconium''] Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 02 Jan 2012</ref>
*''[[Botrychium campestre]]'', W.H.Wagner & Farrar.<ref>[http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500274 ''B. campestre''] Flora of North America, www.eFloras.org 26 Dec 2011</ref><ref>[http://wisplants.uwsp.edu/scripts/SearchResults.asp?Genus=Botrychium ''B. campestre''] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130317084213/http://wisplants.uwsp.edu/scripts/SearchResults.asp?Genus=Botrychium |date=2013-03-17. Robert W. Freckmann Herbarium
University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point 27 Dec 2011</ref>
*''[[Botrychium crenulatum]]'' W.H.Wagner 1981.<ref>[http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500275 ''B. crenulatum''] Flora of North America, www.eFloras.org 26 Dec 2011</ref>
*''[[Botrychium daucifolium]]'' Wall. ex Hook. & Grev. 1830.<ref>[http://www.tropicos.org/Name/26609745 ''B. daucifolium''] Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 27 Dec 2011</ref><ref>[http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=101&taxon_id=242308863 ''B. daucifolium''] Taiwan Plant Names, www.eFlora.org 27 Dec 2011</ref>
*''[[Botrychium echo]]'' W.H.Wagner 1983.<ref>[http://www.tropicos.org/Name/26604469 ''B. echo''] Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 03 Jan 2012</ref><ref>[http://www.fs.fed.us/r2/projects/scp/assessments/botrychiumecho.pdf ''B. echo''] USDA Forest Service,Rocky Mountain Region, Species Conservation Project July 22, 2004</ref>
*''[[Botrychium gallicomontanum]]'' Farrar & Johnson-Groh 1991.<ref name="Johnson-Groh2002"/><ref>[http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500277 ''B. gallicomontanum'' Flora of North America, www.eFloras.org 26 Dec 2011</ref>
*''[[Botrychium hesperium]]'' (Maxon & R.T.Clausen) W.H.Wagner & Lellinger 1981.<ref>[http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500278 ''B. hesperium''] Flora of North America, www.eFloras.org 26 Dec 2011</ref>
*''[[Botrychium japonicum]]'' (Prantl) Underw. 1898.<ref>[http://www.tropicos.org/Name/26610083 ''B. japonicum''] Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 02 Jan 2012</ref>
*''[[Botrychium lanceolatum]]'' (Gmel) Ångstr. 1854.<ref>[http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=200002875 ''B. lanceolatum''] Flora of North America, www.eFloras.org 26 Dec 2011</ref>
* ''[[Botrychium lineare]]'' W.H.Wagner 1994.<ref>[http://www1.dnr.wa.gov/nhp/refdesk/fguide/pdf/botlin.pdf ''B. lineare''] {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120426072518/http://www1.dnr.wa.gov/nhp/refdesk/fguide/pdf/botlin.pdf |date=April 26, 2012}} Washington State Department of Natural Resources 26-Dec-2011</ref><ref>|id=BOLI7|taxon=Botrychium lineare|accessdate=26 Dec 2011}}</ref>
*''[[Botrychium lunaria]]''([[Carl Linnaeus|L.]]) Olof Swartz 1801.<ref>[http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=200002876 ''B. lunaria''] Flora of North America, www.eFloras.org 26 Dec 2011</ref>
* ''[[Botrychium lunarioides]]'' (Michx.) Sw. 1806.<ref>{{cite book|last=Wagner|first=W. H.|title=Flora of North America|year=1993|publisher=Oxford University Press|location=New York|pages=85–91}}</ref><ref>[http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=200002877 ''B. lunarioides''] Flora of North America, www.eFloras.org 26 Dec 2011</ref>
* ''[[Botrychium matricariifolium]]'' (Döll) A. Braun ex W.D.J. Koch 1847.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Muller|first=S.|title=The impact of a drought in spring on the sporulation of Botrychium matricariifolium (Retz) A. Br. in the Bitcherland (Northern Vosges, France)|journal=Acta Oecologica|year=1992|volume=13|pages=335–343}}</ref><ref>[http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500282 ''B. matricariifolium''] Flora of North America, www.eFloras.org 26 Dec 2011</ref>
* ''[[Botrychium minganense]]'' Vict. 1927.<ref>[http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500283 ''B. minganense''] Flora of North America, www.eFloras.org 26 Dec 2011</ref>
* ''[[Botrychium montanum]]'' Warren H. Wagner<ref>[http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500284 ''B. montanum''] Flora of North America, www.eFloras.org 26 Dec 2011</ref>
* ''[[Botrychium mormo]]'' W.H.Wagner 1981.<ref name="Johnson-Groh2002" /><ref>[http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500285 ''B. mormo''] Flora of North America, www.eFloras.org 26 Dec 2011</ref>
* ''[[Botrychium neolunaria]]'', sp. nov. ined. Stensvold & Farrar 2008.<ref>[http://www.public.iastate.edu/~herbarium/botrychium/B-neolunaria.pdf ''B. neolunaria''] Iowa State Herbarium 27 Dec 2011</ref>
* ''[[Botrychium pallidum]]'' W.H.Wagner 1990.<ref>[http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500288 ''B. pallidum''] Flora of North America, www.eFloras.org 26 Dec 2011</ref>
* ''[[Botrychium paradoxum]]'' W.H.Wagner 1981.<ref>[http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500289 ''B. paradoxum''] Flora of North America, www.eFloras.org 26 Dec 2011</ref>
* ''[[Botrychium pedunculosum]]'' W.H.Wagner 1986.<ref>[http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500290 ''B. pedunculosum''] Flora of North America, www.eFloras.org 26 Dec 2011</ref>
* ''[[Botrychium pinnatum]]'' Harold St. John|H. St.John.<ref>[http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500291 ''B. pinnatum''] Flora of North America, www.eFloras.org 26 Dec 2011</ref>
* ''[[Botrychium pseudopinnatum]]'' W.H.Wagner 1990.<ref>[http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500292 ''B. pseudopinnatum''] Flora of North America, www.eFloras.org 26 Dec 2011</ref>
* ''[[Botrychium pumicola]]'' Coville ex Underw. 1900.<ref>[http://www.tropicos.org/Name/26603636 ''B. pumicola''] Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 03 Jan 2012</ref><ref>[http://www.oregon.gov/ODA/PLANT/CONSERVATION/profile_bopu.shtml ''B. pumicola''] Oregon.gov ODA Plant Division, Plant Conservation 03 Dec 2012</ref>
* ''[[Botrychium simplex]]'' E.Hitchc. 1823.<ref>[http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=200002879 ''B. simplex''] Flora of North America, www.eFloras.org 26 Dec 2011</ref>
* ''[[Botrychium socorrense]]'' W.H.Wagner 1989.<ref>[http://www.tropicos.org/Name/26616257 ''B. socorrense''] Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 26 Dec 2011</ref>
* ''[[Botrychium spathulatum]]'' W.H.Wagner 1990.<ref>[http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500295 ''B. spathulatum''] Flora of North America, www.eFloras.org 26 Dec 2011</ref>
* ''[[Botrychium tunux]]'' Stensvold & Farrar 2002.<ref>id=BOTU3|taxon=Botrychium tunux|accessdate=27 Dec 2011.</ref><ref>[http://www.tropicos.org/Name/50270442 ''B. tunux''] Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 26 Dec 2011</ref><ref>[http://www.public.iastate.edu/~herbarium/botrychium/B-tunux.pdf ''B. tunux''] Iowa State Herbarium 03 Jan 2012</ref>
* ''[[Botrychium × watertonense]]'' W.H.Wagner [hesperium × paradoxum]<ref>{{PLANTS|id=BOWA2|taxon=Botrychium ×watertonense|accessdate=27 Dec 2011}}</ref>
* ''[[Botrychium yaaxudakeit]]'' Stensvold & Farrar 2002.<ref>id=BOYA|taxon=Botrychium yaaxudakeit|accessdate=27 Dec 2011}}</ref><ref>[http://www.tropicos.org/Name/50270445 ''B. yaaxudakeit''] Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 26 Dec 2011</ref><ref>[http://www.public.iastate.edu/~herbarium/botrychium/B-yaaxudakeit.pdf ''B. yaaxudakeit''] Iowa State Herbarium 27 Dec 2011</ref>
[[slika:Botrychium virginianum.JPG|thumb|right|''Botrychium virginianum'']]
 
===''Botrychium'' vrste u grupi ''Botrypus''===
Zmijolike paprati tradicijski su smještene u grupu''Botrychium'', podrod ''Osmundopteris'', čije se ime zasniva na površinskim sličnostima vrsta roda ''Osmunda''<ref>Cobb, Farsworth & Lowe, ''Ferns of Northeastern North America'' 2nd edition, p. 247 (2005)</ref>.
* ''[[Botrychium virginianum]]'', (L.) Sw. 1801}}<ref>[http://www.tropicos.org/Name/26602189 ''B. virginianum''] Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 26 Dec 2011</ref><ref>id=BOVI|taxon=B. virginianum|accessdate=27 Dec 2011}}</ref><ref>[http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500296 ''B. virginianum''] Flora of North America, www.eFloras.org 26 Dec 2011</ref><br>=''[[Botrypus virginianus]]'',(L.) Michx. 1803.
 
===''Botrychium'' vrste u grupi ''Sceptridium''===
[[slika:Botrychium rugulosum by OpenCage.jpg|thumb|right|''Botrychium rugulosum'']]
Ove vrste (zimzelene grozdaste paprati) tradicijski su smještene u „Botrice“, podrod '''''Sceptridium''''', čije je ime zasnovano na očiglednoj sličnosti njihovih [[sporangija]] sa tzv. "malim žezlima“.<ref>Cobb, Farsworth & Lowe, ''Ferns of Northeastern North America'' 2nd edition, p. 265 (2005)</ref>
* ''[[Botrychium australe]]'' R.Br. 1810.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Kelly|first=Dave|title=Demography and conservation of Botrychium australe, a peculiar, sparse mycorrhizal fern|journal=New Zealand Journal of Botany|year=1994|volume=32|issue=4|pages=393–400|doi=10.1080/0028825x.1994.10412925}}</ref><ref>[http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Botrychium+australe ''B. australe''] Plants for a Future 26 Dec 2011</ref>
:= ''[[Sceptridium australe]]'' (R.Br.) Lyon 1905.<ref>[http://www.ipni.org/ipni/idPlantNameSearch.do?id=228864-2 International Plant Names Index (IPNI) 17 Jan 2011]</ref>
 
* ''[[Botrychium biforme]]'' Colenso 1886}}<ref>[http://www.ipni.org/ipni/idPlantNameSearch.do?id=17060960-1 ''B. biforme''] International Plant Names Index (IPNI) 02 Jan 2012</ref>
:= ''[[Sceptridium biforme]]'' (Colenso) Lyon 1905.<ref>[http://www.ipni.org/ipni/idPlantNameSearch.do?id=17220050-1 ''S. biforme''] International Plant Names Index (IPNI) 02 Jan 2012</ref>
 
* ''[[Botrychium biternatum]]'' (Savigny) Underw. 1896.<ref>[http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500272 ''B. biternatum''] Flora of North America, www.eFloras.org 26 Dec 2011</ref>
:= ''Osmunda biternata'' Savigny 1798.
:= ''[[Sceptridium biternatum]]'' (Savigny) Lyon 1905.
 
* ''[[Botrychium dissectum]]'' Sprengel 1804,<ref>{{cite journal|last=Montgomery|first=James D.|title=Survivorship and Predation Changes in Five Populations of Botrychium dissectum in Eastern Pennsylvania|journal=American Fern Journal|year=1990|volume=80|issue=4|series=4|pages=173–182|doi=10.2307/1547206|jstor=1547206}}</ref><ref>[http://www.tropicos.org/Name/26602173 ''B. dissectum''] Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 26 Dec 2011</ref><ref>[http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=200002874 ''B. dissectum''] Flora of North America, www.eFloras.org 26 Dec 2011</ref><ref name=mich>[http://michiganflora.net/genus.aspx?id=Sceptridium] MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. January 16, 2012</ref>
:= ''Botrychium obliquum'',Muhl. 1810.<ref>[http://www.tropicos.org/Name/26604109?tab=acceptednames ''B. obliquum''] Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 16 Jan 2012</ref>
:= ''[[Sceptridium dissectum]]'' (Spreng.) Lyon 1905.
* ''[[Botrychium jenmanii]]'' Underw. 1900.<ref>[http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500279 ''B. jenmanii''] Flora of North America, www.eFloras.org 26 Dec 2011</ref><ref>[http://www.tropicos.org/Name/26602175 ''B. jenmanii''] Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 26 Dec 2011</ref>
:= ''[[Sceptridium jenmanii]]''(Underw.) Lyon 1905.
:= ''Botrychium alabamense'', Maxon 1906.<ref>[http://www.tropicos.org/Name/26602175?tab=synonyms ''B. alabamense''] Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 27 Dec 2011</ref>
:= ''Sceptridium alabamense'' (Maxon) Holub. 1973.
* ''[[Botrychium multifidum]]'' (S.G. Gmel.) Rupr. 1859.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Mesipuu|first=Meeli|author2=R. P. Shefferson|author3=T. Kull|title=Weather and herbivores influence fertility in the endangered fern Botrychium multifidum (S.G. Gmel.) Rupr|journal=Plant Ecology|year=2009|volume=203|pages=23–31|doi=10.1007/s11258-008-9501-3}}</ref><ref>[http://www.tropicos.org/Name/26610816 ''B. multifidum''] Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 26 Dec 2011</ref><ref>[http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500286 ''B. multifidum''] Flora of North America, www.eFloras.org 26 Dec 2011</ref><ref>|id=BOMU|taxon=Botrychium multifidum}}</ref><ref>[http://www.uwgb.edu/biodiversity/herbarium/pteridophytes/botmul01.htm ''B. multifidum''] University of Wisconsin, Cofrin Center for Biodiversity, Ferns and Fern Allies of Wisconsin. 26 Dec 2011</ref>
:= ''Osmunda multifida'' S.G. Gmel. 1768.
:= ''Botrychium silaifolium'' C.Presl 1825.
:= ''Botrychium matricariae'' (Schrank) Spreng. 1827.<ref>[http://wisplants.uwsp.edu/scripts/SearchResults.asp?Genus=Botrychium ''Botrychium''] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130317084213/http://wisplants.uwsp.edu/scripts/SearchResults.asp?Genus=Botrychium |date=2013-03-17 }} Robert W. Freckmann Herbarium,
University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point 02 Jan 2012</ref>
:= ''[[Sceptridium multifidum]]'' (S.G.Gmel.) Nishida ex Tagawa 1958.
* ''[[Botrychium oneidense]]'' (Gilbert) House 1905.<ref>[http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500287 ''B. oneidense''] Flora of North America, www.eFloras.org 26 Dec 2011</ref>
:= ''[[Sceptridium oneidense]]'' (Gilbert) Holub 1998}}<ref>[http://www.tropicos.org/Name/26602184 ''Botrychium oneidense''] Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 16 Jan 2012</ref>
* ''[[Botrychium rugulosum]]'' W.H.Wagner 1982<ref>[http://www.tropicos.org/Name/26604473 ''B. rugulosum''] Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 26 Dec 2011</ref><ref name=botrug>[https://web.archive.org/web/20100610054315/http://wisplants.uwsp.edu/scripts/Detail.asp?Spcode=BOTRUG ''B. rugulosum''] Robert W. Freckmann Herbarium, University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point 27 Dec 2011</ref>
:= ''Botrychium ternatum'' auct. non (Thunb.) Sw. 1801.
:= ''[[Sceptridium rugulosum]]'' (W.H.Wagner) Skoda & Holub 1996.
*''[[Botrychium schaffneri]]'' Underw. 1903.<ref>[http://www.tropicos.org/Name/26606088 ''B. schaffneri''] Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 04 Jan 2012</ref> –
* ''[[Botrychium subbifoliatum]]'' Brack. 1854.<ref>[http://www.ipni.org/ipni/idPlantNameSearch.do?id=17061550-1 ''B. subbifoliatum''] International Plant Names Index 27 Dec 2011</ref><ref>[https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=17193 ''B. subbifoliatum''] ITIS taxonomy 26 Dec 2011</ref><ref>id=SCSU13|taxon=Sceptridium subbifoliatum|accessdate=26 Dec 2011}}</ref><br> = ''[[Sceptridium subbifoliatum]]''(Brack.) Lyon 1905}}
* ''[[Botrychium underwoodianum]]'' Maxon 1905.<ref>[http://www.tropicos.org/Name/26608302 ''B. underwoodianum''] Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 27 Dec 2011</ref>
:= ''Botrychium ternatum'' (Thunb.) Sw. 1801.
:= ''[[Sceptridium underwoodianum]]'' (Maxon) Lyon 1905.<ref>[http://www.tropicos.org/Name/26619756 ''S. underwoodianum''] Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 27 Dec 2011</ref>
 
==Konzervacija==
Ove paprati se mogu naći u mnogim sredinama, uključujući prerije, šume i planine. Kako su neke vrste prilično rijetke, napori na očuvanju mogu biti teški. Utvrđivanje rijetkosti neke vrste usložnjavaju mali listovi biljaka koji stoje samo 2-10 centimetara iznad tla. Još veći izazov je u dobijanju tačne brojnosti populacija, jer je nevidljiv podzemni životni ciklus roda. Velika većina bilo koje populacije mjesečinskih vrsta zapravo postoji pod zemljom u bankama koje se sastoje od nekoliko vrsta. Jedna vrsta propagule ima neogoljene spore, koje moraju prodirati kroz tlo izvan dosega svjetlosti kako bi klijale. To povećava vjerovatnoću da će se spore nalći u rasponu mikoriznog simbionta prije nego što proizvedu sitni, grubo oblikovani srcasti [[gametofit]], koji također postoji u potpunosti ispod zemlje. Konačno, neke vrste proizvode geme, oblik aseksualnog razmnožavanja pomoću pupoljaka korijena.
 
Juvenilni i uspavani [[sporofit]]i također se mogu sakriti u tlu duži vremenski period. Zreli sporofiti ne moraju nužno proizvesti godišnji list; mogu ostati održivi u podzemlju do 10 godina bez razvijanja fotosintetskih komponenti. Taj je podvig omogućen njihovom ovisnošću o simbiotskom partnerstvu s gljivama roda ''Glomus'', koje daju najviše fiksiranog [[ugljik]]a za rast i reprodukciju.
 
Ova ovisnost o mikorizi otežala je i laboratorijski uzgoj ovih paprati. Do sada je bilo uspješno samo klijanje [[gametofit]]a.<ref name="Johnson-Groh2002">Johnson-Groh, C. L. and J. Lee (2002). “Phenology and demography of two species of Botrychium (Ophioglassaceae)”. ''American Journal of Botany'' 89 (10): 1624-1633.</ref><ref>Whittier D (1973). “The effect of light and other factors on spore germination in Botrychium dissectum”. Can J Bot 51: 1791-1794.</ref><ref>Winther J, Friedman W (2007). “Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbionts in Botrychium (Ophioglossaceae)”. Am J Bot 94 (7): 1248-1255.</ref>
 
==Reference==
{{Reflist|24em}}
 
==Vanjski linkovi==
* [https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=BOTRY USDA Plants Profile for ''Botrychium'' (grapeferns)]
* [http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=104332 Efloras.org: Flora of North America, treatment of genus ''Botrychium'']
*[https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=17170#null ITIS.gov: List of ''Botrychium'' species] — ''with species links''.
{{Commons category|position=left|Botrychium}}
[[Kategorija: Ophioglossaceae]]
[[Kategorija: Paprati rodovi]]
[[Kategorija: Pteridophyta Amerike]]
[[Kategorija: Paprati Sjedinjenih Država]]
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