Firdusi pred kraj života napušta herojsku tematiku i piše religiozo-ljubavni ep ''Jusuf i Zulejha'' u kojem prema [[Kur'an]]u obrađuje temu o ovo dvoje zaljubljenih.
Osim njegovog kunya (ابوالقاسم - Abu'l-Qāsim) i njegovog laqaba (فردوسی - Ferdowsī, što znači 'paradizo'), ništa nije poznato sa sigurnošću o svom puno ime. Od ranog perioda, on se pominje različitim dodatnim imenima i naslovima, najčešći je حکیم / Ḥakīm ("filozof").  Na osnovu ovoga, njegovo puno ime je dat u persijskim izvorima kao حکیم ابوالقاسم فردوسی توسی / Ḥakīm Abu'l-Qāsim Firdowsī Ţusī. Zbog ne-standardizovane transkripcije sa perzijskog na engleski, različite nazive njegovog imena se koriste u engleskim radovima, uključujući Firdawsi, Firdusi, Firdosi, Firdausi itd. Enciklopedija islama koristi pravopis Firdawsī, na osnovu standardizovanog načina transliteracije njemačko orijentalno društvo  Encyclopædia Iranica, koja koristi modifikovanu verziju iste metode (sa jačim naglaskom na perzijske intonacije), daje fergovor Ferduvi.  U oba slučaja, -ow i -aw treba da se izgovara kao diphong ([aʊ̯]), što odražava originalni arapski i rani novi persijski pronalazak imena. Moderna tadžikova transkripcija njegovog imena u ćiriličnom pismu je Ҳakim Abulkosim Firdavsī Tūsī.
Life Family Ferdowsi was born into a family of Iranian landowners (dehqans) in 940 in the village of Paj, near the city of Tus, in the Khorasan region of the Samanid Empire, which is located in the present-day Razavi Khorasan Province of northeastern Iran. Little is known about Ferdowsi's early life. The poet had a wife, who was probably literate and came from the same dehqan class. He had a son, who died at the age of 37, and was mourned by the poet in an elegy which he inserted into the Shahnameh. Background Ferdowsi belonged to the class of dehqans. These were landowning Iranian aristocrats who had flourished under the Sassanid dynasty (the last pre-Islamic dynasty to rule Iran) and whose power, though diminished, had survived into the Islamic era which followed the Islamic conquests of the 7th century. The dehqans were attached to the pre-Islamic literary heritage, as their status was associated with it (so much so that dehqan is sometimes used as a synonym for "Iranian" in the Shahnameh). Thus they saw it as their task to preserve the pre-Islamic cultural traditions, including tales of legendary kings. The Islamic conquests of the 7th century brought gradual linguistic and cultural changes to the Iranian Plateau. By the late 9th century, as the power of the caliphate had weakened, several local dynasties emerged in Greater Iran. Ferdowsi grew up in Tus, a city under the control of one of these dynasties, the Samanids, who claimed descent from the Sassanid general Bahram Chobin(whose story Ferdowsi recounts in one of the later sections of the Shahnameh). The Samanid bureaucracy used the New Persian language, which had been used to bring Islam to the Eastern regions of the Iranian world and supplanted local languages, and commissioned translations of Pahlavi (Middle Persian) texts into New Persian. Abu Mansur Muhammad, a dehqan and governor of Tus, had ordered his minister Abu Mansur Mamari to invite several local scholars to compile a prose Shahnameh ("Book of Kings"), which was completed in 1010. Although it no longer survives, Ferdowsi used it as one of the sources of his epic. Samanid rulers were patrons of such important Persian poets as Rudaki and Daqiqi, and Ferdowsi followed in the footsteps of these writers. Details about Ferdowsi's education are lacking. Judging by the Shahnameh, there is no evidence he knew either Arabic or Pahlavi.
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