Razlika između izmjena na stranici "Germanij"

Dodan 131 bajt ,  prije 3 godine
== Reference ==
{{refspisak|3|refs=
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<ref name="manjera">Manjeera Mantina, Adam C. Chamberlin, Rosendo Valero, Christopher J. Cramer, Donald G. Truhlar: ''Consistent van der Waals Radii for the Whole Main Group''. u: J. Phys. Chem. A. 2009, 113, str. 5806–5812, {{doi|10.1021/jp8111556}}.</ref>
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<ref name="lide">{{Cite book|author=David R. Lide (ur.): ''|title=CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics''. |edition=90. izd. (internet verzija: 2010), |publisher=CRC Press/Taylor and Francis, |location=Boca Raton, FL, ''|chapter=Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds'', str. |pages=4-142 – 4-147|isbn=978-1420090840}} (internet verzija: 2010)</ref>
<ref name="zhang">Yiming Zhang, Julian R. G. Evans, Shoufeng Yang: ''Corrected Values for Boiling Points and Enthalpies of Vaporization of Elements in Handbooks''. u: Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data. 56, 2011, str. 328–337, {{doi|10.1021/je1011086}}.</ref>
<ref name="lanl">{{cite web|url=http://periodic.lanl.gov/32.shtml|izdavač=Los Alamos National Laboratory |title=Germanium |pristupdatum=28. 8. 2008}}</ref>
<ref name="levy">{{cite journal|datedatum=1. 8. 2005|author =Lévy F.; Sheikin, I.; Grenier, B.; Huxley, Ad.|title=Magnetic field-induced superconductivity in the ferromagnet URhGe|volume=309|issue=5739|pages=1343–1346|journal=Science}}</ref>
<ref name="nbb">{{cite book|author= Emsley John| title = Nature's Building Blocks| publisher = Oxford University Press| year = 2001| location = Oxford| pages = 506–510| isbn = 0-19-850341-5}}</ref>
<ref name="usgs">{{cite journal|title=Germanium—Statistics and Information| author=U.S. Geological Survey|year=2008|journal=U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries|url=http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/germanium/| accessdatepristupdatum=28. 8. 2008}}</ref>
<ref name="darkmat">{{cite book |title=The Primordial Universe: 28 June – 23 July 1999|author=Chardin, B. Binetruy, B (ur.) |chapter=Dark Matter: Direct Detection |publisher=Springer |year=2001 |isbn=3-540-41046-5}}, str. 308</ref>
<ref name="HollemanAF">{{cite book|author = Holleman A. F.; Wiberg, E.; Wiberg, N.|title=Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie, |edition=102. izd.|publisher=de Gruyter|year=2007|isbn=978-3-11-017770-1}}</ref>
<ref name="krxps">{{cite journal|title=KRXPS study of the oxidation of Ge(001) surface|year=1998|author=Tabet, N; Salim Mushtaq A.|journal=Applied Surface Science|volume=134|issue=1–4|page=275}} {{doi|10.1016/S0169-4332(98)00251-7}} </ref>
<ref name="xpsstudy">{{cite journal|title=XPS study of the growth kinetics of thin films obtained by thermal oxidation of germanium substrates||author=Tabet, N; A.L Al-Oteibi; M.A Salim|year=1999|journal=Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena|volume=101–103|page=233}}</ref>
<ref name="Coupling">{{cite journal|title=Oxidative Coupling of Deltahedral [Ge<sub>9</sub>]<sup>4−</sup> Zintl Ions|author = Li Xu; Sevov Slavi C.|journal=J. Am. Chem. Soc.|year = 1999|volume = 121| issue = 39|pages = 9245–9246}} {{doi|10.1021/ja992269s}}</ref>
<ref name="Winkle2">{{cite journal|author= Clemens Winkler |journal = J. Prak. Chemie|volume = 36|issue = 1|year = 1887 |pages = 177–209|title = Mittheilungen über des Germanium. Zweite Abhandlung|url = http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k90799n/f183.table| pristupdatum = 20. 8.2008}} {{doi2008|doi=10.1002/prac.18870360119}}</ref>
<ref name="toxic">{{cite journal|author = Tao S. H.; Bolger, P. M.|datedatum=1. 6. 1997|title = Hazard Assessment of Germanium Supplements|journal = Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology|volume = 25|issue = 3|pages = 211–219}} {{doi|10.1006/rtph.1997.1098}}</ref>
<ref name="Aggarwal">{{cite journal|title = Infrared Transparent Germanate Glass-Ceramics|author = Shyam S.; Sanghera, Jasbinder S.; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.; Wojcik, Joshua A. Bayya |journal = Journal of the American Ceramic Society|volume = 85|issue = 12|pages= 3114–3116|year = 2002}} {{doi|doi=10.1111/j.1151-2916.2002.tb00594.x}}</ref>
<ref name="drugoveiko">{{cite journal|title = Infrared reflectance and transmission spectra of germanium dioxide and its hydrolysis products|year = 1975 |author = Drugoveiko O. P.; Evstrop'ev, K. K.; Kondrat'eva, B. S.; Petrov, Yu. A.; Shevyakov A. M.|journal = Journal of Applied Spectroscopy|volume = 22|issue = 2|page = 191}} {{doi|doi=10.1007/BF00614256}}</ref>
<ref name="BGO">{{cite journal|title = A Bismuth Germanate-Avalanche Photodiode Module Designed for Use in High Resolution Positron Emission Tomography|author = Lightstone A. W.; McIntyre, R. J.; Lecomte, R.; Schmitt, D.|journal = IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science| year = 1986|volume =33|issue= 1|pages = 456–459}} {{doi|doi=10.1109/TNS.1986.4337142}}</ref>
<ref name="Raman">{{cite journal|title = The Crystal Structure and Raman Spectrum of Ge<sub>5</sub>Cl<sub>12</sub>·GeCl<sub>4</sub> and the Vibrational Spectrum of Ge<sub>2</sub>Cl<sub>6</sub>|author= Beattie I.R.; Jones, P.J.; Reid, G.; Webster, M.;|journal = Inorg. Chem.|volume = 37|issue =23|pages = 6032–6034|year = 1998}} {{doi|doi=10.1021/ic9807341}}</ref>
<ref name="ottoh">{{cite journal|author =Otto H. Johnson|title = Germanium and its Inorganic Compounds|journal = Chem. Rev.|year = 1952|volume= 3|issue =3| page=431}} {{doi|doi=10.1021/cr60160a002}}</ref>
<ref name="thiogerm">{{cite journal|title=First synthesis of mesostructured thiogermanates|year=1997|author = Fröba Michael; Oberender, Nadine|journal=Chemical Communications|issue=18|page=1729}} {{doi|doi=10.1039/a703634e}}</ref>
<ref name="intermed">{{cite journal|title = Reactive intermediates in organogermanium chemistry|author = Jacques Satge|journal = Pure & Appl. Chem.|volume = 56|issue = 1|pages = 137–150|year =1984}} {{doi|doi=10.1351/pac198456010137}}</ref>
<ref name="quane">{{cite journal|title = Organogermanium Chemistry| author = Denis Quane; Bottei, Rudolph S.|journal = Chemical Reviews|volume = 63|issue = 4|pages = 403–442|year =1963}} {{doi|doi=10.1021/cr60224a004}}</ref>
<ref name="broadwith">{{cite news|author=Broadwith Phillip|title=Germanium-oxygen double bond takes centre stage|url=http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/News/2012/March/germanone-germanium-oxygen-double-bond-created.asp|work=Chemistry World|datedatum=25. 3. 2012}}</ref>
<ref name="masanori">{{cite journal| author = Masanori Kaji |title = D. I. Mendeleev's concept of chemical elements and ''The Principles of Chemistry''|journal=Bulletin for the History of Chemistry|volume=27|issue=1|pages=4–16|year=2002|url=http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/~mainzv/HIST/awards/OPA%20Papers/2005-Kaji.pdf|pristupdatum = 20. 8. 2008}}</ref>
<ref name="argyrodite2">{{cite web|url=http://www.handbookofmineralogy.org/pdfs/argyrodite.pdf|izdavač=''Mineral Data Publishing''| title=Argyrodite—{{chem|Ag|8|GeS|6}} |pristupdatum=1. 9. 2008}}</ref>
<ref name="isolation">{{cite journal|journal = Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft|volume = 19|issue = 1|pages = 210–211|title = Germanium, Ge, a New Nonmetal Element|author = Clemens Winkler|year = 1887|url = http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k90705g/f212.chemindefer}} {{doi|doi=10.1002/cber.18860190156}}</ref>
<ref name="adamsc">{{cite journal|author=J. C. Adams|title=Explanation of the observed irregularities in the motion of Uranus, on the hypothesis of disturbance by a more distant planet|journal=Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society; Blackwell Publishing|volume=7|page=149|datedatum=13. 11. 1846}}</ref>
<ref name="revkch">{{cite journal|author=Rev. J. Challis|title=Account of observations at the Cambridge observatory for detecting the planet exterior to Uranus|journal=Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society|volume=7|pages=145–149|datum=13.11.1846|izdavač=Blackwell Publishing}}</ref>
<ref name="galaxy24">{{cite journal| title= Scientific Miscellany | journal= The Galaxy; Siebert &amp; Lilley |volume= 24| issue= 1|datedatum=1. 7. 1877|page= 131| author=Robert Sears}} {{ISBN |0-665-50166-8}}</ref>
<ref name="editorsrec">{{cite journal|title= Editor's Scientific Record | journal=Harper's new monthly magazine| volume= 55|issue=325|datedatum=1. 6. 1877 |pages= 152–153 |url = http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/moa-cgi?notisid=ABK4014-0055-21}}</ref>
<ref name="multidict">{{cite web| title = Elementymology & Elements Multidict: Niobium|author= Peter van der Krogt|url = http://elements.vanderkrogt.net/element.php?sym=Nb| pristupdatum = 20. 8. 2008}}</ref>
<ref name="nobellec">{{cite book |title=Nobel Lectures, Chemistry 1942–1962 |publisher=Elsevier |year=1964 |chapter=The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951: presentation speech|author =A. Westgren|url =http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1951/press.html}}</ref>
<ref name="72Ge">Perreault, Bruce A. [http://www.google.com/patents/US7800286 "Alpha Fusion Electrical Energy Valve"], SAD patent 7800286, izdan 21.9.2010. [http://web.archive.org/web/20071012103442/http://www.nuenergy.org/disclosures/AlphaFusionPatent_05-04-2007.pdf PDF].</ref>
<ref name="nubase">{{cite journal|author = Audi G.; Bersillon O.; Blachot J.; Wapstra A.H.| title = Nubase2003 Evaluation of Nuclear and Decay Properties| journal = Nuclear Physics A| volume = 729| issue = 1| pages = 3–128| publisher = Atomic Mass Data Center| year = 2003}} {{doi|doi=10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001}}</ref>
<ref name="sterling">{{cite journal|journal = The Astrophysical Journal Letters|volume = 578|issue = 1|pages = L55–L58|year = 2002|title = Discovery of Enhanced Germanium Abundances in Planetary Nebulae with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer|author = N. C. Sterling; Dinerstein, Harriet L.; Bowers, Charles W.}} {{doi|doi=10.1086/344473}}</ref>
<ref name="jupiter2">{{cite journal| title= The tropospheric gas composition of Jupiter's north equatorial belt /NH<sub>3</sub>, PH<sub>3</sub>, CH<sub>3</sub>D, GeH<sub>4</sub>, H<sub>2</sub>O/ and the Jovian D/H isotopic ratio|author = Kunde V.; Hanel, R.; Maguire, W.; Gautier, D.; Baluteau, J. P.; Marten, A.; Chedin, A.; Husson, N.; Scott, N. |journal = Astrophysical Journal| volume= 263|year= 1982|pages= 443–467}} {{doi|doi=10.1086/160516}}</ref>
<ref name="Gold1">{{cite journal|journal = Nachrichten von der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Mathematisch-Physikalische Klasse|title = Ueber das Vorkommen des Germaniums in Steinkohlen und Steinkohlenprodukten|author = Goldschmidt V. M.|pages = 141–167| year = 1930|url =http://resolver.sub.uni-goettingen.de/purl?GDZPPN002508303}}</ref>
<ref name="Gold2">{{cite journal|journal = Nachrichten von der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Mathematisch-Physikalische Klasse|title = Zur Geochemie des Germaniums|author = Goldschmidt V. M.; Peters, Cl.|pages = 141–167|url =http://resolver.sub.uni-goettingen.de/purl?GDZPPN002509180|year = 1933}}</ref>
<ref name="nature423">{{cite journal| journal=Nature|volume=423|issue= 29|datedatum=1. 5. 2003|title=Astronomy: Elements of surprise|author = Cowan John| page=29}} {{cite pmid|12721614|noedit}} {{doi|=10.1038/423029a|pmid=12721614}}</ref>
<ref name="Holl">{{cite journal|title = Metallogenesis of germanium—A review|author = R. Höll; Kling, M.; Schroll, E. | journal = Ore Geology Reviews|volume = 30|issue = 3–4|year = 2007| pages = 145–180}} {{doi|doi=10.1016/j.oregeorev.2005.07.034}}</ref>
<ref name="lifton">{{cite web|url=http://web.archive.org/web/20070612043415/http://www.resourceinvestor.com/pebble.asp?relid=31285|izdavač=Resource Investor.com|pristupdatum=9. 9. 2008|title=Byproducts II: Another Germanium Rush? |autor=Jack Lifton|datum=26. 4. 2007}}</ref>
<ref name="commodity">{{cite journal |title = USGS Minerals Information |journal = U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Commodity Summaries| url=http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/germanium/index.html#mcs | publisher=U.S. Geological Survey |author = R.N. Soar |year = 1977}}; [http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/germanium/220303.pdf januar 2003], [http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/germanium/germamcs04.pdf januar 2004], [http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/germanium/germamcs05.pdf januar 2005], [http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/germanium/germamcs06.pdf januar 2006], [http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/germanium/germamcs07.pdf januar 2007],[http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/germanium/mcs-2010-germa.pdf januar 2010] {{ISBN |0-85934-039-2}}</ref>
<ref name="bernstein">{{cite journal|title=Germanium geochemistry and mineralogy|year=1985|author=Bernstein, L|journal=Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta|volume=49|issue=11|page=2409}} {{doi|doi=10.1016/0016-7037(85)90241-8}}</ref>
<ref name="Naumov">{{cite journal|author = A. V. Naumov|title = World market of germanium and its prospects|journal = Russian Journal of Non-Ferrous Metals|volume = 48|issue = 4|year = 2007|pages =265–272}} {{doi|doi=10.3103/S1067821207040049}}</ref>
<ref name="Moska">{{cite journal|journal = Minerals Engineering|year = 2004|pages = 393–402|title = Review of germanium processing worldwide|issue = 3|author = Moskalyk, R. R.|volume = 17}} {{doi|doi=10.1016/j.mineng.2003.11.014}}</ref>
<ref name="eckert">''Produktkatalog der Fa. Eckert & Ziegler'' [http://www.ezag.de/zentralkatalog/3_sources_medical_imaging_equipment.pdf str.&nbsp;15]</ref>
<ref name="Bundesamt">Bundesamt für Sicherheit im Gesundheitswesen, AGES PharmMed: [http://www.basg.at/omcl/arzneimittel-faelschungen/warnungen/germanium/ Dodatak ishrani sa otrovnim djelovanjem] {{Simboli jezika|de|njemački}}</ref>
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