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|Puno Ime=Ebu Džafer Abdullah ibn Muhammed el-Mensur
|Nasljednik=el-Mehdi
|Otac=Muhammed ibn Ali ibn Abdullah
|Majka=Sallamah
|Religija=Islam
}}
'''El-Mensur''' ili '''Ebu Džafer Abdullah ibn Muhammed el-Mensur''' (95. po Hidžri – 158. po Hidžri (6. juni 714 – 6. oktobar 775);<ref>Al-Souyouti, Tarikh Al-Kholafa'a (The History of Caliphs)</ref> {{ArJ|أبو جعفر عبدالله بن محمد المنصور}}) bio je drugi [[Abasidski halifat|Abasidski]] halifa koji je vladao od 136 AH do 158 AH (754 ADn.e. – 775 n.e.)<ref>Stanley Lane-Poole, The Coins of the Eastern Khaleefahs in the British Museum</ref><ref name="Axworthy">Axworthy, Michael (2008); ''A History of Iran''; Basic, USA; ISBN 978-0-465-00888-9</ref> i naslijedio je svog starijeg brata [[Es-seffâh|Abu al-'Abbas al-Saffaha]]. El-Mensur da je generalno smatran za prvog osnivača abasidskog halifata, jedne od najvećih političkih jedinica u historiji svijeta kao i za svoju ulogu u stabilnoj i institucionaliziranoj dinastiji.<ref>''The Cambridge History of Islam, volume 1: The Formation of the Islamic World'', ed. </ref> On je također poznat po osnivanju grada' Madinat al-Salama koji je postao jezgro carskog [[Bagdad]]a.<ref>''The Cambridge History of Islam, volume 1: The Formation of the Islamic World'', ed. </ref>
 
== Biografija ==
El-Mensur je rođen u Abasidskoj porodici nakon njihovog odlaska iz Hidžaza 95. po Hidžri (714. godine). Njegov otac, a Muhamed je nesumnjivo bio veliki unuk Abbas b. Sure al-Muttaliba, najmlađeg ujaka [[Muhammed|Muhamed<nowiki/>a]]; njegova majka, kao što je opisano u historijskom izvoru Marokanca Rawd al-Qirtasa iz 14og stoljeća da je jedna Sallama, "Berberska žena rodila njegovog oca." <ref>[https://books.google.com/books?id=Zqd-nLqwXdcC&pg=PT243&dq=#v=onepage&q&f=false World's Great Men of Color vol.]</ref> vladao od Zul-Hidže do Zul-Hidže 136. po Hidžri - 158. po Hidžri (754 – 775). U 762. godini osniva novi glavni grad i palatu Madinat'-es-Selam (grad mira), koja će postati uskoro jezgro glavnog grada [[Bagdad]]a.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Charles Wendell|year=1971|title=Baghdad: Imago Mundi, and Other Foundation-Lore|journal=International Journal of Middle East Studies|volume=2}}</ref> El-Mensur je bio zabrinut za čvrstinu njegove vladavine nakon smrti njegovog brata Abu l `Abbas (kasnije poznatom kao [[Es-seffâh|kao Saffah]]). U 754. je pobijedio Abdalah ibn Alija pretenziju za halifat, i u 755 je on naručio atentat na Ebu Muslima. Ebu Muslim je bio oslobođeni rob iz Iranske provincije Horasan koji je bio na čelu Abasidskih vojski donio pobjedu u Trećoj Fitni u 749-750; on je bio podređenik el-Mensuru ali također i neprikosnoveni vladar Irana i Transoksanije (Maveraunnehra). Atentat je rezultat straha el-Mensura za preveliku moć Ebu Muslima koji je mogao da pokrene borbu za prevlast u carstvu i oživi stare iranske carske ambicije. 
 
El-Mensur je rođen u Abasidskoj porodici nakon njihovog odlaska iz Hidžaza 95. po Hidžri (714. godine). Njegov otac, a Muhamed ibn Ali ibn Abdullah je nesumnjivo bio veliki unuk Abbas b. Sure al-Muttaliba, najmlađeg ujaka [[Muhammed|Muhamed<nowiki/>a]]; njegova majka, kao što je opisano u historijskom izvoru Marokanca Rawd al-Qirtasa iz 14og stoljeća da je jedna Sallama, "Berberska žena rodila njegovog oca." <ref>[https://books.google.com/books?id=Zqd-nLqwXdcC&pg=PT243&dq=#v=onepage&q&f=false World's Great Men of Color vol.]</ref> vladao od Zul-Hidže do Zul-Hidže 136. po Hidžri - 158. po Hidžri (754 – 775). U 762. godini osniva novi glavni grad i palatu Madinat'-es-Selam (grad mira), koja će postati uskoro jezgro glavnog grada [[Bagdad]]a.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Charles Wendell|year=1971|title=Baghdad: Imago Mundi, and Other Foundation-Lore|journal=International Journal of Middle East Studies|volume=2}}</ref> El-Mensur je bio zabrinut za čvrstinu njegove vladavine nakon smrti njegovog brata Abu l `Abbas (kasnije poznatom kao [[Es-seffâh|kao Saffah]]). U 754. je pobijedio Abdalah ibn Alija pretenziju za halifat, i u 755 je on naručio atentat na Ebu Muslima. Ebu Muslim je bio oslobođeni rob iz Iranske provincije Horasan koji je bio na čelu Abasidskih vojski donio pobjedu u Trećoj Fitni u 749-750; on je bio podređenik el-Mensuru ali također i neprikosnoveni vladar Irana i Transoksanije (Maveraunnehra). Atentat je rezultat straha el-Mensura za preveliku moć Ebu Muslima koji je mogao da pokrene borbu za prevlast u carstvu i oživi stare iranske carske ambicije. 
 
 
Kada je Isa b. Musa, el-Mensurov nasljednik, pao pod sumnju korupcije, el-Mehdi je imenovan u njegovo ime i javno se zakleo na vjernost halifi. Kao i njegov stariji brat Saffah on je želio da ujedini zemlju, pa je se riješio se gotovo kompletno svake oporbe.<ref>{{IzvorCite book|title=History of Tabarî|last=al-Tabarî|first=Abu Ja'far al-Muhammad|publisher=New Haven|year=1979|isbn=|location=|pages=XXVIII, 68.}}</ref>
 
Tokom njegove vladavine, Islamska književnost i učevnjaštvo počinje da doživljava procvat uz podršku Abasidske promocije naučnih istraživanja, a to se najbolje vidi po sponzoriranom prevodilačnom pokretu. el-Mensur je dao sastaviti komitet, uglavnom sastavljen od Asirskih kršćana i bio je osnovan u Bagdadu sa svrhom prevođenja sačuvanih grčkih radova na arapski. Zbog Abasidske orijentacije prema Istoku, mnogi Persijanci počinju da igraju snažnu kulturnu i političku ulogu u carstvu. Ovo je velika razlika naspram prethodne Omejidske epohe, u kojoj ne-Arapi su držani dalje od vlasti i administracije. ''Shu'ubiya;'' pokret koji se javlja sa rastom Iranske autonomije je literani pokret među Persijancima koji su izrazili vjeru u superiornost persijske umjetnosti i kulture, i katalizirali pojavu Arapsko-persijskih dijaloga u IX stoljeću.
 
Godine 756., el-Mensur šalje više od 4.000 Arapskih plaćenika da pomogne Kineze u An Shi Pobuni protiv An Lushana; nakon rata, oni su ostali u Kini.<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Jskyi00bspcC&pg=PA92&dq=arab+mercenaries+song+dynasty&q|title=A history of Vietnam: from Hong Bang to Tu Duc|last=Oscar Chapuis|publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group|year=1995|isbn=0313296227|page=92|access-date=28 June 2010}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=5LSvkQvvmAMC&pg=PA283&dq=arab+mercenaries+china&q=arab%20mercenaries%20china|title=The religious traditions of Asia: religion, history, and culture|last=Joseph Mitsuo Kitagawa|publisher=Routledge|year=2002|isbn=0700717625|page=283|access-date=28 June 2010}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=8rhPAAAAMAAJ&dq=arab+mercenaries+song+dynasty&q=arab+mercenaries|title=China: a history in art|last=Bradley Smith, Wango H. C. Weng|publisher=Harper & Row|year=1972|page=129|access-date=28 June 2010}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=6SACPP8mZQ8C&pg=PA53&dq=arab+mercenaries+song+dynasty&q|title=Hong Kong images: people and animals|last=Hugh D. R. Baker|publisher=Hong Kong University Press|year=1990|isbn=9622092551|page=53|access-date=28 June 2010}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=CqkeAAAAIAAJ&q=arab+mercenaries+china&dq=arab+mercenaries+china|title=China: a short cultural history|last=Charles Patrick Fitzgerald|publisher=Praeger|year=1961|page=332|access-date=28 June 2010}}</ref> AlEl-Mensur pjesnikje kaže da jetakođer sepoznat nazivakao "A-p'u-ch'a-fo":u Kineskim T'ang Analima.<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ObcNAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA25&dq=Several+embassies+from+the+Abbaside+Caliphs+to+the+Chinese+Court+are+recorded+in+the+T'ang+Annals,+the+most+important+of+these+being+those+of+(A-bo-lo-ba)+Abul+Abbas,+the+founder+of+the+new+dynasty,+that+of+(Ap'u-cKa-fo)+Abu+Giafar&hl=en&ei=TvXmTtW1I8Lo0QGz4rHvCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Several%20embassies%20from%20the%20Abbaside%20Caliphs%20to%20the%20Chinese%20Court%20are%20recorded%20in%20the%20T'ang%20Annals%2C%20the%20most%20important%20of%20these%20being%20those%20of%20(A-bo-lo-ba)%20Abul%20Abbas%2C%20the%20founder%20of%20the%20new%20dynasty%2C%20that%20of%20(Ap'u-cKa-fo)%20Abu%20Giafar&f=false|title=Islam in China: a neglected problem|last=Marshall Broomhall|publisher=Morgan & Scott, ltd.|year=1910|location=LONDON 12 PATERNOSTER BUILDINGS, E.C.|pages=25, 26|access-date=14 December 2011}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=XJqCAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA150&dq=According+to+Giles,+the+true+stock+of+the+present+Chinese+Mohammedans+was+a+small+army+of+four+thousand+Arabian+soldiers,+who,+being+sent+by+the+Khaleef+Abu+Giafar+in+755+to+aid+in+putting+down+a+rebellion,+were+subsequently+permitted&hl=en&ei=EfbmTq-VKaL50gGHlrHsCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=According%20to%20Giles%2C%20the%20true%20stock%20of%20the%20present%20Chinese%20Mohammedans%20was%20a%20small%20army%20of%20four%20thousand%20Arabian%20soldiers%2C%20who%2C%20being%20sent%20by%20the%20Khaleef%20Abu%20Giafar%20in%20755%20to%20aid%20in%20putting%20down%20a%20rebellion%2C%20were%20subsequently%20permitted&f=false|title=China: its history, arts and literature, Volume 2|last=Frank Brinkley|publisher=J.B.Millet company|year=1902|volume=Volumes 9–12 of Trübner's oriental series|location=BOSTON AND TOKYO|pages=149, 150, 151, 152|access-date=14 December 2011}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=5ukVAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA150&dq=According+to+Giles,+the+true+stock+of+the+present+Chinese+Mohammedans+was+a+small+army+of+four+thousand+Arabian+soldiers,+who,+being+sent+by+the+Khaleef+Abu+Giafar+in+755+to+aid+in+putting+down+a+rebellion,+were+subsequently+permitted&hl=en&ei=HffmTtG4KKTl0QHfoZHfCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=According%20to%20Giles%2C%20the%20true%20stock%20of%20the%20present%20Chinese%20Mohammedans%20was%20a%20small%20army%20of%20four%20thousand%20Arabian%20soldiers%2C%20who%2C%20being%20sent%20by%20the%20Khaleef%20Abu%20Giafar%20in%20755%20to%20aid%20in%20putting%20down%20a%20rebellion%2C%20were%20subsequently%20permitted&f=false|title=Japan [and China]: China; its history, arts and literature|last=Frank Brinkley|publisher=Jack|year=1904|volume=Volume 10 of Japan [and China]: Its History, Arts and Literature|location=LONDON 34 HENRIETTA STREET, W. C. AND EDINBURGH|pages=149, 150, 151, 152|access-date=14 December 2011}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=N6dFAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA317&dq=These+were+not+preaching+or+proselytising+inroads,+but+commercial+enterprises,+and+in+the+latter+half+of+the+eighth+century+there+were+Moslem+troops+in+Shensi,+3000+men,+under+Abu+Giafar,+coming+to+support+the+dethroned+Emperor+in+ad&hl=en&ei=6ffmTpi8BuTh0QH6_YmJCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=These%20were%20not%20preaching%20or%20proselytising%20inroads%2C%20but%20commercial%20enterprises%2C%20and%20in%20the%20latter%20half%20of%20the%20eighth%20century%20there%20were%20Moslem%20troops%20in%20Shensi%2C%203000%20men%2C%20under%20Abu%20Giafar%2C%20coming%20to%20support%20the%20dethroned%20Emperor%20in%20ad&f=false|title=The Chinese people: a handbook on China ...|last=Arthur Evans Moule|publisher=Society for promoting Christian knowledge|year=1914|location=LONDON NORTHUMBERLAND AVENUE, W.C.|page=317|access-date=14 December 2011}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=yz5KAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA141&dq=The+true+stock+of+the+present+Chinese+Mahomedans+was+a+small+army+of+4000+Arabian+soldiers+sent+by+the+Khaleef+Abu+Giafar+in+755+to+aid+in+putting+down+a+rebellion.+These+soldiers+had+permission+to+settle+in+China,+where+they+married&hl=en&ei=x_jmTt-kMKbh0QHMwqXtCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=The%20true%20stock%20of%20the%20present%20Chinese%20Mahomedans%20was%20a%20small%20army%20of%204000%20Arabian%20soldiers%20sent%20by%20the%20Khaleef%20Abu%20Giafar%20in%20755%20to%20aid%20in%20putting%20down%20a%20rebellion.%20These%20soldiers%20had%20permission%20to%20settle%20in%20China%2C%20where%20they%20married&f=false|title=A glossary of reference on subjects connected with the Far East|last=Herbert Allen Giles|first=|publisher=Messrs. Lane|year=1886|isbn=|edition=2|location=HONGKONG|page=141|pages=|quote=|access-date=14 December 2011}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=drPQaUGOJQIC&pg=PA138&dq=abu+giafar+chinese&hl=en&ei=LPTmToPPEsHj0QHPm4nWCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CE4Q6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=harun%20raschid%20less%20obtrusive&f=false|title=Confucianism and its rivals|last=Herbert Allen Giles|first=|publisher=Forgotten Books|year=1926|isbn=1606802488|location=|page=139|pages=|quote=|access-date=14 December 2011}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=AaqwzVeg__IC&pg=PA223&dq=abu+giafar+chinese&hl=en&ei=LPTmToPPEsHj0QHPm4nWCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CFQQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=mussulman%20families%20are%20still%20found%20canton%20foochow&f=false|title=Confucianism and its Rivals|last=|first=|publisher=Forgotten Books|year=|isbn=145100849X|location=|page=223|pages=|quote=Prva džamija sagrađena je u Kantonu, nakon koje slijedi još par u provinciji Xinjiang.|access-date=14 December 2011}}</ref>
<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?ei=28LnTsDrG8bs0gG51sTtCQ&ct=result&id=oLnXAAAAMAAJ&dq=abu+giafar+chinese&q=China+%E2%80%A2+Arab+troops+were+dispatched+by+Abu+Gia-+far+to+China.|title=The Muslim diaspora: a comprehensive reference to the spread of Islam in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Americas|last=Everett Jenkins|first=|publisher=McFarland|year=1999|isbn=0786404310|edition=illustrated|volume=Volume 1 of The Muslim Diaspora|location=|page=61|pages=|quote=Kina, Arapske trupe su poslane u Kinu|access-date=14 December 2011}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=XVMuAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA295&dq=abu+giafar+chinese&hl=en&ei=28LnTsDrG8bs0gG51sTtCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEQQ6AEwBDgK#v=onepage&q=abu%20giafar%20chinese&f=false|title=Travels in Indo-China and the Chinese empire|page=295|access-date=21 May 2013|dead-url=no}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?ei=28LnTsDrG8bs0gG51sTtCQ&ct=result&id=QvtwAAAAMAAJ&dq=abu+giafar+chinese&q=abu+giafar|title=Embers in Cathay|last=Stanley Ghosh|first=|publisher=Doubleday|year=1961|isbn=|location=|page=60|pages=|quote=|access-date=14 December 2011}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?ei=mMnnTpWzPIPe0QH2ys39CQ&ct=result&id=qMSBAAAAIAAJ&dq=abu+giafar+chinese&q=785|title=Chinesische Geschichte|last=Heinrich Hermann|publisher=D. Gundert|year=1912|page=77|language=German|access-date=14 December 2011}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=3tvjAAAAMAAJ&q=abu+giafar+chinese&dq=abu+giafar+chinese&hl=en&ei=mMnnTpWzPIPe0QH2ys39CQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CE0Q6AEwBjge|title=Deutsche Literaturzeitung für Kritik der Internationalen Wissenschaft, Volume 49, Issues 27–52|publisher=Weidmannsche Buchhandlung|year=1928|page=1617|access-date=14 December 2011}}</ref>
 
El-Mensur umro je 775. godine na putu do [[Mekka|Meke]] da obavi hadž. On je pokopan negdje usput u jedan od stotine grobova kako da sakrilo njegovo tijelo od Omejada. Naslijedio ga je njegov sin, el-Mehdi.
 
Prema broju izvora, E[[Ebu-Hanifa|buEbu Hanifa-Nu'man]] (koji je osnovao vlastitu školu [[Kelam|kelama]]) je zatočen od strane el-Mensura. [[Malik ibn Enes|Malik b. Anas]], drugi po redu osnivač škole kelama, je bičevan tokom njegove vlasti, ali el-Mensur kaže lično nije odobravao ovo – u stvari, to je bio njegov rođak, tadašnji guverner Medine, koji je  naredio da se ovo. (i kažnjen je za to).<ref>Ya'qubi, vol.</ref>
 
== Osobenost ==
[[Datoteka:Offa_king_of_Mercia_757_793_gold_dinar_copy_of_dinar_of_the_Abassid_Caliphate_774.jpg|lijevo|mini|Menkus izdat pod vladavinom [[Saksoni|Saksonkog]] kralja [[Offe  od Mercije]] (757-796), je prepisani zlatni dinar el-Mensura. Kombinira latinski natpis OFFA REX sa arapskom tematikom. Datum [[Islamski kalendar|A. H.]] 157 (773-774 CE) je čitljiv.<ref>[https://books.google.com/books?id=TGkz9NGFXIMC&pg=PA327&dq=manqush+coin#PPA330,M1 Medieval European Coinage By Philip Grierson p.330]</ref> [[Britanski muzej|Britanski Muzej]].]]<blockquote>El-Mesudi u ''Poljanama Zlata'' govori o slijepom pjesniku koji u dva navrata čita stihove hvale za [[Emevije|Omejade]] ne shvatajući da je u pitanju  Abasidski; el-Mensur ipak nagrađuje pjesnika za stihove. Još jedna priča opisuje strijelu sa stihovima ugraviranu i perjem blizu vrha koja slijeće blizu el-Mensura; ovih stihovi brzo ga navode da izvede istragu o zatvorenom plemiću iz Hamdana kojeg pušta na slobodu.</blockquote><blockquote>Kada el-Mensur umro, trezor halifata je imao preko 600.000 [[dirhem]]a i četrnaest miliona [[dinar]]a.{{Izvor}}</blockquote>
El-Mesudi u ''Poljanama Zlata'' govori o slijepom pjesniku koji u dva navrata čita stihove hvale za Omejade ne shvatajući da je u pitanju  Abasidski; el-Mensur ipak nagrađuje pjesnika za stihove. Još jedna priča opisuje strijelu sa stihovima ugraviranu i perjem blizu vrha koja slijeće blizu el-Mensura; ovih stihovi brzo ga navode da izvede istragu o zatvorenom plemiću iz Hamdana kojeg pušta na slobodu.
 
Kada el-Mensur umro, trezor halifata je imao preko 600.000 [[dirhem]]a i četrnaest miliona [[dinar]]a.{{Izvor}}
 
== Reference ==
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izmjena