Kratkolančane masne kiseline

Kratkolančane masne kiseline (SCFAs) su masne kiseline s manje od šest ugljikovih atoma.[1] Izvedene iz crijevnih mikrobnih fermentacija neprobavljive hrane, SCFA su glavni izvor energije kolonocita, što ih čini ključnim za gastrointestinalno zdravlje.[1][2] Sve SCFA poseduju različite stepene rastvorljivosti u vodi, što ih razlikuje od dugolančanih masnih kiselina koje se ne miješaju.

Lista SCFA-ova

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Lipidni broj Ime Naziv soli/estera Formula Masa
(g/mol)
Dijagram
Uobičajeno Sistemsko Uobičajeni Sistemski Molekulska Strukturna
C1:0 Mravlja kiselina Metanska kiselina Format Metanoat CH
2
O
2
HCOOH 46.03
 
C2:0 Sirćetna kiselina Etanska kiselina Acetat Etanoat C
2
H
4
O
2
CH
3
COOH
60.05
 
C3:0 Propionska kiselina Propanoična kiselina Propanat Propanoat C
3
H
6
O
2
CH
3
CH
2
COOH
74.08
 
C4:0 Buterna kiselina Butanojska kiselina Butirat Butanoat C
4
H
8
O
2
CH
3
(CH
2
)
2
COOH
88.11
 
C4:0 Izobuterna kiselina 2-Metilpropanska kiselina Izobutirat 2-Metilpropanoat C
4
H
8
O
2
(CH
3
)
2
CHCOOH
88.11
 
C5:0 Valerinska kiselina Pentanska kiselina Valerat Pentanoat C
5
H
10
O
2
CH
3
(CH
2
)
3
COOH
102.13
 
C5:0 Izovalerijanska kiselina 3-Metilbutanska kiselina Izovalerat 3-metilbutanoat C
5
H
10
O
2
(CH
3
)
2
CHCH
2
COOH
102.13
 
C5:0 2-Metilbuterna kiselina 2-Metilbuterna kiselina 2-Metilbutanoat 2-Metilbutanoat C
5
H
10
O
2
CH
3
CH
2
CH(CH
3
)COOH
102.13
 

Funkcije

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SCFA se proizvode kada se hranjiva vlakna fermentiraju u debelom crijevu.[1][3] Sastav makronutrijenata (ugljikohidrati, proteini ili masti) u ishrani utiče na cirkulišuće SCFA.[4]

Acetatna, propionatna i butiratna su tri najčešća SCFA.[3]

SCFA i srednjelančane masne kiseline se prvenstveno apsorbuju kroz portnu venu tokom varenja lipida,[5] dok se dugolančane masne kiseline pakuju u hilomikrone, ulazeči u limfne kapilare, a zatim se prenose u krv u subklavkulsku venu.[1]

SCFA imaju različite fiziološke uloge u tjelesnim funkcijama.[1][2] They can affect the production of lipids, energy and vitamins.[6] One također mogu uticati na apetit i kardiometaboličko zdravlje.[4] Osim toga, mogu utjecati na mentalno zdravlje i raspoloženje.[7] Pokazalo se da tri glavna SCFA, acetat, propionat i butirat, snižavaju krvni pritisak u eksperimentalnim modelima,[8][9][10][11] i u toku su klinička ispitivanja kako bi se utvrdio njihov učinak na hipertoniju.[12] Butirat je posebno važna za zdravlje debelog creva jer je primarni izvor energije za kolonocite (epitelne ćelije debelog creva).[1][2] Jetra može koristiti acetat za energiju.[13]

Također pogledajte

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Reference

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  1. ^ a b c d e f Brody T (1999). Nutritional Biochemistry (2nd izd.). Academic Press. str. 320. ISBN 978-0121348366. Pristupljeno 21. 12. 2012.
  2. ^ a b c Canfora EE, Jocken JW, Blaak EE (oktobar 2015). "Short-chain fatty acids in control of body weight and insulin sensitivity". Nature Reviews. Endocrinology. 11 (10): 577–591. doi:10.1038/nrendo.2015.128. PMID 26260141. S2CID 1263823.
  3. ^ a b Wong JM, de Souza R, Kendall CW, Emam A, Jenkins DJ (mart 2006). "Colonic health: fermentation and short chain fatty acids". Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. 40 (3): 235–243. doi:10.1097/00004836-200603000-00015. PMID 16633129. S2CID 46228892.
  4. ^ a b Mueller NT, Zhang M, Juraschek SP, Miller ER, Appel LJ (mart 2020). "Effects of high-fiber diets enriched with carbohydrate, protein, or unsaturated fat on circulating short chain fatty acids: results from the OmniHeart randomized trial". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 111 (3): 545–554. doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqz322. PMC 7049528. PMID 31927581.
  5. ^ Kuksis A (2000). "Biochemistry of Glycerolipids and Formation of Chylomicrons". u Christophe AB, DeVriese S (ured.). Fat Digestion and Absorption. The American Oil Chemists Society. str. 163. ISBN 978-1893997127. Pristupljeno 21. 12. 2012.
  6. ^ Byrne CS, Chambers ES, Morrison DJ, Frost G (septembar 2015). "The role of short chain fatty acids in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis". International Journal of Obesity. 39 (9): 1331–1338. doi:10.1038/ijo.2015.84. PMC 4564526. PMID 25971927.
  7. ^ Merchak A, Gaultier A (decembar 2020). "Microbial metabolites and immune regulation: New targets for major depressive disorder". Brain, Behavior, & Immunity - Health. 9: 100169. doi:10.1016/j.bbih.2020.100169. PMC 8474524 Provjerite vrijednost parametra |pmc= (pomoć). PMID 34589904 Provjerite vrijednost parametra |pmid= (pomoć).
  8. ^ Kaye DM, Shihata WA, Jama HA, Tsyganov K, Ziemann M, Kiriazis H, et al. (april 2020). "Deficiency of Prebiotic Fiber and Insufficient Signaling Through Gut Metabolite-Sensing Receptors Leads to Cardiovascular Disease". Circulation. 141 (17): 1393–1403. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.043081. PMID 32093510. S2CID 211476145.
  9. ^ Marques FZ, Nelson E, Chu PY, Horlock D, Fiedler A, Ziemann M, et al. (mart 2017). "High-Fiber Diet and Acetate Supplementation Change the Gut Microbiota and Prevent the Development of Hypertension and Heart Failure in Hypertensive Mice". Circulation. 135 (10): 964–977. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.116.024545. PMID 27927713. S2CID 207639406.
  10. ^ Bartolomaeus H, Balogh A, Yakoub M, Homann S, Markó L, Höges S, et al. (mart 2019). "Short-Chain Fatty Acid Propionate Protects From Hypertensive Cardiovascular Damage". Circulation. 139 (11): 1407–1421. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.036652. PMC 6416008. PMID 30586752.
  11. ^ Kim S, Goel R, Kumar A, Qi Y, Lobaton G, Hosaka K, et al. (mart 2018). "Imbalance of gut microbiome and intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction in patients with high blood pressure". Clinical Science. 132 (6): 701–718. doi:10.1042/CS20180087. PMC 5955695. PMID 29507058.
  12. ^ Rhys-Jones D, Climie RE, Gill PA, Jama HA, Head GA, Gibson PR, et al. (juli 2021). "Microbial Interventions to Control and Reduce Blood Pressure in Australia (MICRoBIA): rationale and design of a double-blinded randomised cross-over placebo controlled trial". Trials. 22 (1): 496. doi:10.1186/s13063-021-05468-2. PMC 8313879 Provjerite vrijednost parametra |pmc= (pomoć). PMID 34315522 Provjerite vrijednost parametra |pmid= (pomoć).
  13. ^ Roy CC, Kien CL, Bouthillier L, Levy E (august 2006). "Short-chain fatty acids: ready for prime time?". Nutrition in Clinical Practice. 21 (4): 351–366. doi:10.1177/0115426506021004351. PMID 16870803.

Vanjski linkovi

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